A view from the bridge

Activity(Before reading):

Questions:

1- Important facts about Arthur Miller.

2- When was it written?

3- Historical and social context(Find information about Italian immigration to the USA after WW2)

ANSWERS

1-

-He was born in Harlem, New York in October 17th of 1915.

– His writing was influenced because he lived both wars.

– He is considered one of the greatest American playwrights of the 20th century.

– His father was a Polish and Jewish immigrant in the USA.

– His writing was much influenced by his childhood memories and by his political concerns about what he has to dealt with during the 1930s and the 1940s.

– He debuted in Broadway in 1944 with his writing play “The Man Who Had All The Luck”.

– In 1957, he was accused of being part of the communist party.

2- This book, was written on September 22nd of 1955 and published on September 29th of the same year.

3- Because of Mussolini’s death and the end of WW2, Italy entered in an economic depression. Because of this reason, almost 700,000 Italians decided to look for others opportunities and chances in starting their lives. This unreal amount of people, went to USA. As Arthur Miller, a lot of US people, had Italian relatives after this immigration.

Slideshare

Tyres – Questions

Matías Ripoll, Marcos Okecki y Tomás braun.

These are the questions and answers about the story «Tyres» writen by Adam Thorpe.

Questions:
1. (pp396/397) Sum up his boyhood thoughts, opinions and feelings.

2. What attitude does the father, Monsieur Andre Paulhan, have towards the Germans, the Resistance and to his son’s (Raoul) involvement in the war and resistance?

3. Describe his first meeting and emotions with the young girl when Raoul was 14/15 in 1940 and three years later at 17/18. (P399/400)

4. How do these lines reflect the Raoul’s feelings at the end of the story: “Someone who, if suddenly no longer there, can leave a hole in your heart, and a feeling of doom until the moment he or she reappears.”

5 p401 How involved in the Resistance does Raoul think that the young girl and his father are? What does the threat: “Try a nail or two” imply about the father?

6. (p402) What does Raoul do to bring the girl closer to him? How does his father react?

7. Describe Andre’s feelings about religion and about the Petain government. P403 and elsewhere.

8 Finally the romance with Cecile Viala is in the open with Raoul’s family p403/404 How would you describe their feelings for each other?

9.( p405) What has prompted Raoul to sabotage the Gestapo officer’s inner tube?

10. What is the faint hope Raoul has for Cecile as she accepts the ride in the car?

11 . The story ends with a reluctant mood to shift with the times. Explain how this is true.
Answers:

1- Raoul, since he was a kid, he wanted to help his father at work, to continue the legacy. We can see this through the quotation “I started helping my father as soon as I could stand upright”. In addition, this is also hyperbole because he began to assist his father in the factory as soon as he has the qualities. Moreover, through the extract “I was at first scared of the hiss of the compressors, of the great blade that took off the rubber(…). I learnt to see a tyre as sad, when its chin lay flat on the ground, melting away” we can see that despite the fact that at first he was scared of the tools of the factory, he then with the pass of the years he started to know all the parts of the tools and to see the tyres as if they weren’t only objects, he personified them as if they were sad or happy not if they were inflated or flat.

2- His father was neutral with the germans and the resistance because he didn’t hate them nor like them. He worked for them only with the objective of having a living. Moreover, he asked a friend of him not to send the letter for his son to join the army. This happened because he didn’t want him to leave the family company nor die and end the tradition of the family.

3- When Raoul saw the girl for the first time, he had a crush for her. At this time of the story, he changes from ordinary(war) to extraordinary(love). In addition, he describes her in a very childish way, as we can see in the following quotation: “Her skin was so olive that one never saw her blush”. In their second meeting, he showed his matureness, because he had the courage to talk to her. They had an extensive conversation and since then they always greeted each other.

4- These lines foreshadow what is going to happen to Raoul. He said that he was scared that maybe he fell in love and finally she could leave him leaving a hole in his heart. This reflects what is going to happen to Raoul in the end because the girl dies and he is heartbroken.

5- Raoul thinks that his father is in a neutral and doubtful position because he, for one side doesn’t like them because they are in a war against them, however, he has to work for a living so he helps the germans and the maquisards in the company. Moreover, he knows that the girl is very involved in the resistance. Because of this reason, he decides to sabotage the the German car. He loves the girl and also, he is in his rebel years. He is 17 so he wants to be against his father although he said not to do it.

6- After a month the girl had stopped to thank Raoul, he wanted to talk to her again so he “decided to do something clownish, to make her stop again”. He stood in the middle of the road with a bucket full of stones and earth and started to pour it into the pot-hole. Raoul, whose plan succeeded, made the gorgeous girl stop. About his Andre’s reaction, he started to suspect about the girl’s participation in Raoul’s life when he mentioned: “Wipe that bloody stupid grin off your face, or I’ll think you’re up to something”. Raoul, after this order, doubted about what had been happening to his father.

7- First, Andre’s feelings about the catholics were not positive. As Raoul transmits, he “disliked the catholics with a two-hundred-year-old force flowing in his veins”, this means that he did not tolerate them even in the minimum way. In addition, he was against the idea that the Jews were murdered by the Germans. He knew that “the war was a personal attack to his bussiness” because, when he had jews clients, they were taken away and killed by the Germans. This meant, that his company would have less people to be pleased, which meant less cars that would make their economy fall.

8-To begin with, Raoul felt he didn’t deserve Cecile. He had been in love with her since the time he saw her for the first time. He could not talk to her because of his shyness upon the woman who had his head thinking in other things than war or surviving. Cecile caused that Raoul saw the world in a different way, as if it was “the world was suddenly like an immense garden in which we could wander at will”. This means that, for a moment, they were free from the Germans, from war. The extraordinary side was present while they were together.

9- Raoul’s mind, when his moment to fix, or sabotage the car arrived, started to get full of different thoughts and concerns. He first thought about what could happen to him if he sabotaged it, he knew that maybe, if he was caught, he would end up as the people in the museum. However, on the other hand, he remembered the words of the man in the cafe. He didn’t know what to do, his mind was about to explode. Finally, he decided to sabotage the car. He did this firstly, because he loved the girl, that was one of the things that he cared the most. Secondly, because of the words of the man in the cafe and, finally, because he was in his rebel years. Raoul, was 17, and this was the age that he did what he wanted without caring what his father said.

10- As Raoul was running towards the luggage, he saw Cécile having a conversation with the German Maybach and her bicycle placed on the locker. He felt a “kind of terrible chill, which made my heart slow, though it was pumping hard to keep my speed up”. This means that he felt depressed to the extent of having his heart with a low rhythm, however, as he was deeply in love with her, his heart had to beat hard to so that he could run. Moreover, he felt that she was forced to go with the Maybach because of the circumstance she was in.

11- There was a moment where Raoul passed the best period of his life, as he started a relationship with Cecile, after many years of shyness. However, at the end of the story, his feelings of love and happiness became doom and darkness, as Cecile tragically died on a car accident, where she entered a nazi car and crashed on a tree. This situation became even worse, because he had the fault; a member of the maquis had told him to repair German cars in a wrong way, otherwise they would think he was a collaborator. He did this with the Maybach’s luggage, where Cecile later on passed away. This tragedy affected his life completely. At the moment, he still tries to explain what happened. He didn’t get married and he has no children. In addition, he left his father’s business.

Rite of Passage – Tyres

RITE OF PASSAGE- TYRES

Rite of Passage:

1- Unattainable object of desire: Raoul’s object of desire was the girl called Cécile Viala. He wanted her to be his girlfriend, he loved her, however, he didn’t have the braveness to talk to her.

2- The break of the father’s law: His moment of trespassing, is when he fixes the tyre incorrectly, breaking his father’s law.

3- Dare: The challenge that he faced is to break his father’s law when he repaired the tyre in an incorrect way. He mischief because he did what he shouldn’t have done because this caused his girlfriend death.

4- Face what he had done in a mature way: The personna didn’t face in a mature way what he had done because he didn’t move on with his life from her death.

5- Reparation: In this story, Raoul didn’t repair what he had done. He didn’t face what he had done, so he couldn’t have had the chance of repairing what he had done.

In conclusion, Raoul didn’t mature because he didn’t complete the rite of passage.

Rite of passage – Tomás Braun, Francisco Montoya y Matías Ripoll

[yop_poll id=»-3″]RITE OF PASSAGE

Games at twilight:

Elements:

1-Ravi wants to be mature, win the game and be like the older kids.

2-Ravi hides in the shed, he passed the limits of the Veranda and porch that her mother had previously put.

3-The dare in this story happens when Ravi has to deal to hide in the spooky, odd and queer shed.

4-No element number four.

5-No element number five.

Conclusion: He didn’t mature nor complete the rite of passage.

Prison:

Elements:

1- Tommy’s unreachable thing is to save the girl from being a thief. He thinks that his life has a purpose but he doesn’t understand that the one that needs help is him.

2- Tommy’s trespassing moment is when he bought a slot machine without asking Rosa or her father.

3- Tommy’s dare is to save the girl from being a thief. He thinks that his life has a purpose now.

4- There is no element four because he didn’t confess with matureness. He hit Rosa lika an immature.

5- There is no element five because he didn’t understand that the girl is just a girl and not a thief and he is the one that needs help.

Conclusion: He didn’t mature nor comple the rite of passage.

 

Foreshadowing:

Games at twilight:

1- ‘»You are dead» he said with satisfaction.’ This foreshadows Ravi’s death of innocence and chilhood in the end.

The chanting that the kids are doing outside the shed foreshadows that they dont care about him.

When Ravi hears tha Manu has been caught that foreshadows that he will be the next.

Prison: When Tommy starts thinking that he wants to grab the girl by the neck, it foreshadows when Rosa grabs the girl by the neck.

Specular moment:

Games at Twilight: The specular moment in this story happens when Manu was caught by Raghu and Ravi realises that he was the next one, that he had no escape. He started to feel panic. He knew that he was going to be the next because Manu was the smallest and he was the next one.

Prison: «He felt he ought to do someting for her, warn her to cut it out before she got trapped and fouled up her life before it got started». This quotations shows how Tommy sees her future reflected on his life. He wanted to warn her because she would end up being a thief. However, he couldn’t see the truth, he was the one who needed help.

 

Epiphany:

Games at Twilight: One of the epiphanies in Games at Twilight happens at the end, when Ravi realises that he was a kid, that none of his friends care about him and that he had to mature.

Also, when he ralizes that he has been daydreaming and that he has to get out of the shed and go and touch the den.

Prison: The epiphanic moment in Prison happens when Tommy realises that his mind was a prison. He couldn’t get out of it and take his own decisions. He didn’t have the faith nor security to do it. A great quotation which explains it is this one: «You could never see the sky outside or the ocean because you were in a prison, except nobody called it a prison». This happens when he is about to fell asleep.

The prison – B. Malanud

Determinism: The antecedent from the past determine or establish the events or actions in the present.

In this story determinism affects tony because he can not pick his choices of what to do, however, he panics and ends up determining his actions by his past.

This man doesn´t have controls over his life and his actions. He is not even safe of his choices this shows his insecureness.

Pato told us to see the slideshare that Senior 2 had made and explain which things we didn’t know and which things we knew that aren’t there.

 

 

Slideshare

We found new the biography of the writer. Something interesting about it is that he was an inmigrant, as well as Tommy.

The things missing were:

-The theory of determinism, which said that the antecedents from the past determine or establish the events or actions in the present.

In this story, determinism affects tony because he can not pick his choices of what to do, however, he panics and ends up determining his actions by his past.

-Foreshadowing: When Tommy starts thinking that he wants to grab the girl by the neck, it foreshadows when Rosa grabs the girl by the neck at the end of the story.

-Another thing that is not in their slideshare is the Rite of Passage.

 

 

Games at Twilight by Anita Desai

Anita Desai:

  • She was born in June 24th of 1937.
  • She is an Indian writer.
  • Anita Desai started to write at the age of seven.
  • This woman published her first novel, Cry, the peacock, in 1963.
  • From all the languages she knows she has always preferred to write in English.
  • In 1975 she won an award for the novel named Where Shall We Go This Summer.
  • She was born to a German mother and a Bengali father.

Twilight symbolizes two things that are opposites that in one moment they can be joined and be together. An example is the day and the night. At one specific time, the sunset, they are both, the day and the night, present.

Bloated: Something that is inflated.

Choke: To suffocate someone.

Stirred: To disturb or be active.

Sizzling: Something that is baking or burning.

Shrieks: To shout or yell.

In the first page of this story the weather was not cool, it was a very sunny day and you could feel the air of the place. The next afternoon It was too hot and to bright. It was an arid time of day and the air was sizzling.

This is the Scrapbook we made with Pato in the class about the first page of Games at Twilight.

 

After finishing the reading of the story, we made this Scrapbook in which we analyze Games at Twilight written by Anita Desai:

 

Page 22 and 23 of booklet. Activities by Rama, Álvaro and I.

Some themes and Issues for this story are:

-Childhood experiences.

-Effects of environment.

-Death.

-Innocence.

-Feeling insignificance.

Ex 1- She expresses the atmosphere of the story with adjectives which symbolize death. The author wants to show us how suffocating the weather was for them.

Ex 2-

-Mira: Our impressions about Mira are, first that she was the most mature girl of the group. Secondly, she solved all the problems between them and also she always organized the games for them. She did all this acts because of her motherly attitudes.

-Manu: Our impression about Manu is that he was the youngest boy of the group and also the unexperienced and innocent. Because of this reason that he was the youngest, he was inspired by the elders and felt unsure.

Raghu: Our impression about Raghu is that he was the oldest of the kids. Raghu was admired by all the children, but Ravi was the one who admired him the most because of his footballer legs. Finally, he was the bully of the group because he hit the younger ones.

Ex 3- RAVI FINDS A HIDING PLACE IN THE SHED

A-  Ravi, when he entered to the Shed, he felt scared, incomfortable and very nervous because Raghu was near him.

B- The Shed was described with death adjectives. Some of them are Gloomy, Odd, Weird and Dark. Ravi felt forgotten as the things which were inside the shed so, this symbolizes that Ravi was as important as the things inside the shed.

C- Ravi´s feeling about managing to escape from Raghu was victorious. Ones he entered to the shed he realized that Raghu was a company and protection

RAVI SPENDS TIME IN THE SHED

A- His feeling were ugly, disgusting, horrifying, creepy and shocking because of the rats, spiders and insects which were in the shed and he could not see because of the darkness of the place.

B- While Ravi was daydreaming of his future won, the kids outside the shed were having fun and enjoying while they played another game.

C- Ravi´s thoughts about his «victory» against Raghu were self-congratulating because he would win to the eldest and the one he admire the most so, for him, this would be an incredible and amazing action.

RAVI LEAVS THE SHED AS EVENING APPROACHES

A-  When twilight was approaching, he felt abandoned, ignored, miserable and insignificant. At this time of the story he realized that something was wrong.

B- Ravi felt dissapointed and realized he had been forgotten and he was insignificant for the others because they had started playing another game.

C- Firstly, they didn’t recognize him but after a minute they remembered who he was and they told him not to be crybaby and to join them to play another game.

D- They were chanting and making an arc with their arms. This affected him in the way that he thought he was going to be win and be the hero, however, he realized that nobody cared about him and he was not important for them.

RAVI FEELS A SENSE OF DESPAIR

A- He has learned that growing is painful and that he wasn’t so important for everyone. Also he has learned that life has good things and bad things, ups and downs. He realized that this was a part of the cycle of life.

B- The ending of the story represents a complete reversal for Ravi and his hopes because when he was in the shed he imagined that he was going to win and to be a hero but, at the end, when he realized that they were playing another game and they had forgotten him he felt dissapointed, with no hopes and insignificant.

4-

A- This quotation expresses that there was no activity, no life, no movement and this is refering that nobody was alive because of the weather and environment.

B- This extract of the story means that the dog of this story was like «a dying traveller in search of water» because he was deshidrating, dying and desesperated because it was too hot.

C- He is decribing the horror of the shed and the creepy animal inside it.

D- In this one, he is also describing the odd and weird shed.

E- In the next quote, he is describing the reaction of the faces when the children saw ravi.

F- In the next extract, he describes the disappintment of Ravi.