Biology note taking

These are the notes I took on May, 31st, June, 13th and June 14th about Respiration.


  • Respiration(not breathing):
    Is the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy.
    In mitochondria(double membrane, form of a bean), respiration occurs.
    Muscle cells, nerve cells and sperm cells, need lot of energy, have lot of mitochondria.
  • Glucose molecule: C(6) H(12) O(6).
  • Oxygen Molecule: O(2).
  • Water molecule:H(2) O.
  • Carbon Dioxide molecule: C O(2).
  • Mitochondria is essential for respiration.
  • Our cells need energy(ATP, not seen yet) for muscle contraction, making protein molecules(linking together amino acids into long chains), cell division(to repair damaged tissues for growth), active transport, transmitting nerve impulses and maintenance of constant body temperature.
  • Anaerobic respiration: Without oxygen.
  • Aerobic respiration: With oxygen.
  •  Energy must be stored in molecules, as it can not be scattered all along the cytoplasm.
  • ATP—–> Adenosin triphosphate.
  • Energy is kept in ATP.
  • More energy is kept in Adenosin Triphosphate than in adenosin monophosphate and adenosin diphosphate, as it contains more «coins or units» were it is stored.
  • Energy to be used for no matter what it is needed for, needs to be previously transported and then stored by ATP.
  • ATP molecules are always trying to separate.
  • From one glucose molecule, we can obtain 38 molecules of ATP.
  • Aerobic respiration: 1 glucose molecule + 6 oxygen molecule ——–> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + E (38 ATP).
  • When you switch the equation of Aerobic respiration, you get the process of photosynthesis.
  • Anaerobic respiration: The release of small amount of food by the breakdown of food subtances in the absence of O2.

States of matter basics

In our last Biology class, we tried to change the phases of water, using this simulator

The gases, liquids and solids are all made of molecules, atoms and sometimes ions, however, their particles have different behaviours which vary and can be arranged into three phases.

Gases: This state is present when the boiling point(100 Cº) is reached and water starts evaporating. The water molecules start to separate and spread, always moving.

Liquids: This state is present when water is at a warm and normal temperature, this means, that is neither hot or cold. The water molecules, although they aren’t neither all spread nor all closely together, have the force to be relatively close.

Solids: This state is present when water is in a cold temperature. The water molecules are closely packed together, in a fix and constant position. They are not able to move from place, although their is a very thin space between them.


Tuesday 4th

Matías Ripoll and Tomás Braun

Chapter 19th

Make an evaluation on the chapter. Include between 7-10 questions NOT including any of the end of Chapter 9 or the ones found along the chapter.

1) Make a comparative chart between continuous and discontinuous variation.

2) What is mutation and what consequences does it bring?

3) What can you do to avoid mutation?

4) Why can we say that an animal or a plant that is well adapted to its environment is much more likely to survive than one that is not?

5) Which is Charles Darwin’s theory and what does it state?

6) Explain the differences between natural selection and artificial selection.

7) Which are the causes of genetic variation?

8) What was Charles Darwin’s evidence to prove his theory?

Wednesday 15th – Biology notes

These are my notes about our biology class on Wednesday 15th of March.

  • Discontinuous variation: Is a type of variation that differences in the features of a group of organisms where each fits into one of a few defined categories. An example are blood groups that are defined groups with different characteristics.
  • Continuous variation: Is a type of variation that can not be classified into one, two or three groups because there are no definite categories. An example is our height, as it can change because all people may have different height because there are lots of possibility.
  • Genetic variation: One of the differences between individuals is that their genotypes(the information given by all the genes that we have inside) are different. This means, that our variation is controlled by genes. For example eye colour, hair colour, height and many other characteristics are controlled by genes. Finally, blood groups are also controlled by genes.
  • Environmental variation: Are the changes that happen in our body that are caused due to our place of living, this means, by the environment. This is very common in animals, by helping them to survive in it’s habitat. Animals which can not adapt to the environment will not reproduce but the ones who do, will reproduce and little by little advance the process of transforming that species in the ideal animal for it’s habitat.
  • Natural selection: Is the choice of nature for the species to always try to make it survive all it can. This means, that nature always tries, by selection, the species to live as much long as it can.
  • Artificial selection: Is the choice by the farmer or grower of only the «best», fittest and more advanced parents to breed, generarion by generation, to improve the species and generally to adapat it for it’s environment.

Multiple choice test – Biology

These are my answers to the topic we will start seeing today in our Biology lesson without reading the chapter.
This is what I know now about variation + Natural selection.

Wednesday 8/3

Multiple choice test.

1. A
2. A
3. S
4. S
5. S
6. S
7. S
8. S
9. S
10. S

These are some notes of this class:

  • Descent: Are the living organisms that come after us and we reproduce.
  • Mutation: Is a sudden change in the genetic material which is in the nucleus.
  • If mutation occurs in an ovule of a sperm, the organism which is going to be affected is the descent, not the mother or the father.

Mitosis – Summary

Yesterday, in our Biology class, Ceci told us to watch again the video we had watched in class and make a summary of it.

This is the video:

This is my summary about it:

Mitosis: Mitosis is a type of cell division, done by most of our body cells and is very important for these cells to divide. If they didn’t divide, you wouldn’t grow.

It’s function is the growth and reparation. The reason of the increasing of your growth throughout years, is Mitosis. Moreover, if you have a kind of accident, like a cut on your arm, to make sure it can get repaired you have to make more cells to do it and Mitosis is great and essential also for this. In addition, Mitosis is not a process that makes sperm or eggs cells, because this is made by Meiosis which is a different process. Through this process two indetical(with same genetic material) daughter cells are made. An example is when you need more skin cells for replacing other skin cells that are in damage you don’t need any stomach cells and that is Mitosis’ function, to make identical cells. Despite this fact, cells are not always growing because this would cause Cancer, that is the result of uncontrolled cell growth. In the interface, cells grow, make the “DNA replication” and carry out its daily cells function. In the cell cycle, we can see what cells do in all their lives. The interphase, takes 90% of the time of this cycle and is where the cells make all their processes except for Mitosis, that take 10% of the time of this cycle. The cells have something inside them, an organelle called Nucleus that holds the DNA which is the genetic material. So, if you are going to make mor cells you need them to have the same DNA in those new cells as you did in your original ones. The DNA can be organized into condensed units called chromosomes that are made of DNA and protein. In addition, Humans have 46 chromosomes in it of their cells. So, if you have 46 chromosomes in a cell, you have to duplicate those chromosomes(interphase) before mitosis starts so that they would be identical as the original ones. Also, because we tend to count chromosomes by the number of centromeres present, when the 46 chromosomes duplicate, we still say that there are 46 chromosomes because we’re counting by the centromeres. However, when they duplicate, there are 92 chromatids.

Finally, there are four stages in this process:

-Prophase:In this stage, the nucleus is still there despite the fact, it’s going to go away and the chromosomes are visible.

-Metaphase:In this stage, the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell while the nucleus has been disassembled, that it’s no longer there.

-Anaphase: Here, the chromosomes move to the opposite side of the cell, to the poles of it. However, these chromosomes are not moving on their own, they have something called spindles that are fibers that help move the chromosomes to the end.

-Telophase: In this final stage, the chromosomes are at the complete opposite ends and new nuclei are forming on each side to make these two new cells.

Finally, to finish this division, there is the cytokinesis that is responsible for the final separation into two cells by splitting the cytoplasm.

Notes for Biology – June 11th

Reproduction in plants

-Reproduction is the process by which organisms produce new organisms.
-Living organisms reproduce in two ways depending on the number of parents involved.
-Asexual~~~~~~~~ 1 parent
-Sexual~~~~~~~~ 2 parents
-Some living organisms either sexually or asexually and some only in 1 way.
-Asexual: Process by which one organism produces a new living organism without the participation of another. The new organism is yes or yes identical. Both the parent’s cells and offspring’s cells contain the same genetic material. Whenever an organism is an identical from it’s parent having the same genetic material are called clones. When environment is constant asexual reproduction is fast and effective because they don’t have to find a compatible organism and because if they are suitable for it, the offspring will also be. The only form that bacteria and other prokaryotic organisms is by reproduction. This type of reproduction is common for single-celled eukaryotic organisms such as protozoa, single-celled algae and yeast. Many fungi and multicellular algae adopt this form of reproduction in certain circumstances.There exist many forms of asexual reproduction: Bipartition (Divides spontaneously into two like bacteria), Budding (Organism spontaneously creates a bud which ends up separating and becoming another identical individual like Hydra),
-Sexual: Process by which two compatible organism from same species create new living organisms. The descendants will have a mix of the characteristics of their parents.

Notes for biology – June 6th

Has reproduction been always understood as we do nowadays?

This are my notes about what we have seen in this class:

– Before, there weren’t any microscopes or tools and that is why most of the living organism could not be seen.
– In anciente Greece, they thought that there were two ways of generating living organisms:
.By reprofuction of another living organism.
.By the transformation of lifeless forms.
– There weren’t any tools to see a lot of things so they couldn’t prove nor refute what they thought.
– Thanks to detalied observation of magnifying lenses we know a lot of more things like for example that weevils are born from tiny eggs.
– From ancient times, a lot of humans believed that living organism were created from inert material until the nineteenth century that was refuted.
– In conclusion, in the past, they didn’t have any tools to see a lot of things and living organisms. However, we know that what they thought was wrong because of the detalied observation that we have nowadays