Biology project – Urinary system

Biology project – Urinary system

 

Some classes ago, our bIology teacher, told us to create a model of the urinary system, using trash, as the image(taken from our teacher’s blogs) shows. The purpose of this, was that we shouldn’t need to buy things and that this trash materials, would have another use. In this project, I’ve worked with Tomás Braun Urien.

As the image, taken from our teacher’s blog, shows we used cans of drinks covered with red paper, to represent the kidneys, as they´re red. Moreover, ureter and urethra were presented in our project with strings. Also, the renal artery and the aorta were made by us with red straws, while the renal vein and the vena cava were made with blue straws. Finally, we use a plastic sac to represent the bladder.

 

As a last step, we should include each function, of each organ of this system. And this is what we wrote:

 

 

  • Kidneys: The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found on the left and right sides of the body in vertebrates. The kidneys receive blood through the renal artery. The blood reaches the kidney and this one, together with its components(millions of nephrons) start to work. The wastes, such as urea, salt, water and minerals which weren´t extracted from food, are removed from blood and converted by the kidneys (and functional nephrons inside them) into urine, which is drained down a tube by the name of ureter.
  • Nephron: The nephron is the tiny structure in your kidneys which helps to filter your blood. Each of your kidneys contain more than a million of these structures. It removes the wastes(urea, salts, water, minerals) from blood and converts them into urine, which is later passed through the ureter into the bladder.
  • The ureter: The ureter is a large tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. There are two ureters, one attached to each kidney. In the abdomen, the upper half of the ureter is located and the lower half is situated in the pelvic area. In adults, the ureter is about 10 to 12 inches long and it always has thick walls composed of a fibrous, a muscular, and a mucus coat, which is able to contract.
  • The bladder: The bladder is an expandable muscular sac located in the lower abdominal area near the pelvic bones. This one stores and keeps urine before it is excreted out of the body through the urethra. The bladder contracts when it is empty. When empty, the bladder’s muscle wall becomes thicker and the entire bladder becomes firm.
  • The Urethra: Throughout the urethra, the urinary bladder and the outside of the body are connected. Once the bladder becomes full, urine flows through the urethra and leaves the body. The urethra is more than just a urinary duct; it also serves as a conduit for semen and sperm during sexual acts in men.
  • The renal veins: There are two renal veins, the left one and the right one. They branch off the inferior vena cava and drain oxygen-depleted blood from the kidneys. As they enter the kidneys, each vein separates into two parts. The posterior veins drain the posterior section of each kidney, while the anterior veins do this same thing but in the front part. These veins also drain blood from the ureter, which carries urine away from the kidneys to the bladder.
  • The renal artery: The renal artery is one of the two blood vessels which leave the abdominal aorta and enter the kidneys. The renal artery enters through the hilum, and once it does this, it splits into two main branches. These ones each then split into numerous smaller arteries called nephrons, which deliver blood to different areas of the kidneys.
  • The inferior vena cava: The inferior vena cava is a large vein that transports de-oxygenated blood(most of the oxygen has been removed by tissues, and therefore the blood is darker) to the heart from the lower body(legs and lower torso).
  • The abdominal aorta: The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity. As part of the aorta, it is a direct continuation of the descending aorta and branches to form the major arteries of the abdomen. It provides blood to the organs and tissues of the abdomen, pelvis, and legs.

 

 

Finally, this is our labelled model:

Mi aventura en el país de las maravillas

Esta es mi aventura en el país de la maravillas, la cual nuestra profesora de lengua, Camila, nos dijo que escribamos.

 

Un 5 de Julio de hace dos años me encontraba en el country de mis primos, Joaquín y Bautista, en unas canchas jugando al fútbol con ellos. Este sitio tenían pasto sintético perfectamente cortado, formando una cancha en la que todo futbolero desearía jugar. Las paredes blancas cubiertas de un plástico protector rodeaban toda la cancha, excepto una puerta, de dos metros de altura y uno y medio de ancho, color roja y completamente nueva. Luego de que Bautista arrojara la pelota afuera de la misma, mi aventura comenzó. Yo, decidí ir a buscar la pelota,con el objetivo de continuar con nuestro juego, pero yo no sabía lo que me esperaba detrás de esa puerta. Seguido de mi paso por este maravilloso objeto, mi aventura empezó.

Entré a un cuarto completamente oscuro, cuya luz se prendió como consecuencia de un aplauso mío. No recordé nada, ni la pelota, ni la realidad. No escuchaba nada, parecía como si estuviese dormido, no se oían ni mis pasos, todo parecía muy irreal. Las paredes de esta habitación eran blancas y lo único que se encontraba era una puerta negra, ubicada en el techo, la cual no podía alcanzar. Pestañeé y al segundo me encontré con una jirafa naranja y de 7 metros de altura, la altura perfecta para que llegue al techo. Así comenzó mi primera conversación con un animal de esta aventura:
– ¿Cómo anda Jirafa? Mi nombre es Alicia, usted mide como cien metros!!!!
– No niña Alicia, cien metros es demasiado, mido solamente 7.
Ella no parecía entender mi ironía y sarcasmo, por lo que decidí ignorarla. Me subí para llegar a la puerta, la cual se empezó a mover, de un lado a otro, impidiéndome abrirla. Salté y pude agarrarme de la manija, que al abrirla me llevó a un recital, en un teatro gigante, con capacidad de alrededor de 30.000 invitados y 4 pisos.
Parecía un teatro muy anormal, era informal y raramente decorado, con distintos tipos de colores, como las cortinas rojas, las paredes rosas o el piso amarillo. También poseía asientos de diferentes tamaños, como si los invitados tuvieran extremadamente distintas medidas. Sin embargo, lo más raro llegó cuando la obra comenzó, esta estaba dirigida por animales y extraterrestres con trajes exóticos y resaltantes. Resulté ser el único invitado humano, a pesar de que el resto de animales invitados hablaban mi mismo idioma. Por esta razón, decidí comunicarme con un sapo, el cual se encontraba al lado mío:
– Señor sapo, ¿Podría informarme cuando termina la obra?
– Cuando acaben de tocar los compositores.
No entendí porque se tomaba todo tan literal pero luego de varias veces de tratar de expresarme, me explicó que faltaban 3 horas, por lo que me retiré antes.

Abrí la puerta del teatro y me encontré dentro de un gigante, redondo panal de abejas, del cual no podía salir. Mi tamaño se había achicado hasta medir los diez cm, y me di cuenta que me rodeaban alrededor de otras veinte abejas, que trataban de derribar y romper las amarillas paredes del panal, las cuales impedían que salgamos al exterior. Estos pequeños animales me gritaban: “Trabaja! Trabaja!”. Les hice caso y comencé el labor. Primero intenté con el uso de mi boca, luego traté de raspar pero finalmente, con una simple patada logré agujerear el panal. Las abejas salieron lanzadas por el orificio del panal, parecían estar apuradas! Yo decidí copiarlas, y salté por este agujero, sin temer a la distancia a la que me encontraba del piso. Cinco segundos después resulté estar cayendo desde 100 metros con un paracaídas.

Estaba 50 metros del piso, y me preguntaba qué escena extraordinaria y maravillosa me tocaría vivir ahora. Sin embargo, me sentía distinto, había vuelto a mi tamaño original y recordaba perfectamente todo. Todo me parecía muy raro, y recién cuando logré reconocer un rectángulo verde en el piso me di cuenta. Ya había vuelto a la realidad, y estaba llegando a la cancha de fútbol, en la cual seguían mis primos. Diez metros de distancia nos separaban y ellos, confundidos me gritaban: “Mati, Mati, a tu derecha!”. Me di vuelta y logré agarrar una pelota jabulani, blanca y negra con rayas rojas, tal cual como la que había perdido. Apenas aterricé mis primos comenzaron a hacerme preguntas de todo tipo, y les explique mi aventura, la cual no iba a olvidar jamás mientras ellos escuchaban fascinados.

Respiration and gas exchange

October the 4th

Respiration + Gas exchange

Activity 11.3  (B. Page 143)

A1: Water is needed to be boiled to drive off any dissolved air.

A2: The sugar solution has to be cooled begore adding the yeast, because if not, the yeast would die

A3: The liquid Paraffin’s function is to isolate yeast from air and vice versa.

A4: In the test tube which does not contain liquid paraffin, the substance it’s going to be clear as the yeast is dead and cannot respire. On the other hand, the tube containing liquid paraffin, the substance it’s going to be cloudy aa the yeast is alive and can respire.

A5: The substance we will expect to find is alcohol as it is the result of yeast respiring anaerobically.

A6:

Activity 11.8 (B. Page 148)

Report – Natural disaster

This is the report I did with Ramiro Aizpiri about the Mexico Natural disaster

NEWS REPORT

 

México suffers an 8.1 Earthquake

 

On the September the 9th and 19th of 2017, an 8.1 Earthquake stroke in the country of Mexico. The cities affected by this disaster were Mexico city, Morelos and Puebla state. 217 civilians were killed by this devastating catastrophe and and thousands of civilians suffered injuries or other hardships.

This earthquake was the most powerful one since the one that hit this same country in 1985, date of the anniversary of the 1985 tragedy. It stroke at a speed of 350km per hour, damaging and collapsing buildings and all sorts of structures or facilities, such us in Mexico City, who lost 40 of its buildings. Not only constructions suffered consequences, but also people, due to the casualties or the loss of houses.

After both strikes hit, streets were blocked and as a result people struggled to reached their homes. In other cases, they lost their houses and had no place to go. Companies and shops were destroyed, so most of the workers lost their jobs and therefore had no money left to maintain themselves. In fact, the US Geological Survey mentioned the following: “the economic impact was between US$1 Billion and US$10 billion”. As a consequence, the country’s economy and market decreased strongly and rapidly. Finally, 5 millions of civilians were still without power within the following week.

To conclude, due to the devastation caused by this earthquake, several victims lost. ot only their houses but also loved people. The government declares it was going to interfere. However, a neighbour of the Asuncion Ixtaltepec town yelled at Rios: “There were dead people, and nobody came”. Throughout this quote we can see that victims are claiming that officers did came but very late and in a very short amount of rescuers, so they had to try and save themselves by their own. They expect the state to take quicker actions to solve this chaos as soon as possible.

Activity History – Analyze sources

During the last historyl classes, we started a project in which, in pairs of two, we had to analyze sources of our book. I was with Tomas Braun and this is our analysis of the sources 1, 3, 4, 9, 13.

SOURCE 1: In the following extract or quotation from Hitler’s biography, we can see his thoughts about the Treaty of Versailles. The German dictator thought they had been humiliated by it´s terms, as it was too harsh. Moreover, Hitler referred as a “robbery” and “disgrace”. This means that as Britain and France had won the war, they took advantage and crippled Germany, without mercy. We can understand that he demanded and was sure they deserved a better treatment as the entire country thought, for example, that they had not started the war, so why should they accept the term “War Guilt”? They agreed that they had participated but claimed that other causes had started it such as Russia’s mobilization or the murder at sarajevo. This anger that was brought about to Hitler, resulted in his willing for revenge and hatred towards the allies.

 

SOURCE 3:  This quote from a German woman who lived in the Ruhr, tells us a lot about how the French treated Germans when they invaded the city. It was clear that, after the First World War, the French were willing to destroy Germany. When the Treaty Of Versailles was signed, Germany accepted paying the war debts. However, although they successfully paid 50 million pounds the first year, the next one they didn’t pay nothing. This made France even more angry, so the invaded the Ruhr as a way of payment through resources and industries. As they were furious, French soldiers didn’t treat people too nicely, but, as this lady says, there was harassment, hunger, poverty and judgement. Moreover, this was seen as a humiliation for Germans

 

SOURCE 4: In this picture, we can see a representation of Germany’s relationship with Britain and France, and the state of German’s economy. On the one hand, the picture shows how the prime ministers of Britain and France look at Germany while it’s “drowning”. Moreover, they won’t help Germany with a loan. On the other hand, we can see Germany being on her knees in the water, meaning that she has to put much more effort by herself to pull the country out of the economic crisis, and not ask for help to other powerful countries.

 

SOURCE 9: In the following quote we can understand the people and the inhabitant´s thoughts about hyperinflation. The government and state claimed that hyperinflation was not an easy issue and that it had happened as a consequence of many causes. However, the public criticised them, explaining that they had to pay reparations for being unable to solve the problem and because of the excuses they brought. Moreover, they were so angry at the republic that they never forgave it because of this situation they didn’t managed to deal with.

 

SOURCE 13: In this poster, we can see that, in Germany, there was a huge cultural revival, similar to the USA’s one. In this specific case, we can see that new cinema stars emerged, and that sex became a talkable topic, not like before. Moreover, nightclubs and bars were created, along with Cabarets, where artist sang songs about politics and sex, which would have shocked and earlier generation of Germans.