Trabajo práctico de Geografía – Matías Ripoll y Juana Zufriategui

TRABAJO PRÁCTICO GEOGRAFÍA
Matías Ripoll y Juana Zufriategui

Unidad 7 – Riesgos de desastre y vulnerabilidad social.

En numerosos lugares se producen eventos de origen natural como inundaciones, erupciones volcánicas y accidentes tecnológicos. Cuando estos eventos afectan negativamente a una sociedad se dice que ha ocurrido un desastre. Estos, causan daños como pérdida de vidas, accidentes, destrucción de bienes, interrupción de servicios públicos, paralización de actividades productivas y contaminación de recursos naturales. Sin embargo, siempre, los más afectados son los más débiles; los niños y los ancianos.
Además, los desastres son complejos porque tienen origen en la interacción de fenómenos naturales y tecnológicos. Teniendo en cuenta esto, se los puede clasificar en cuatro grandes grupos:
Desastres naturales.
Desastres tecnológicos.

Desastres naturales que desencadenan un desastre tecnológico.
Desastres tecnológicos que desencadenan un desastre natural.

También, los desastres son eventos inesperados que irrumpen en la normalidad de una sociedad y, esta sociedad, solo puede desarrollar acciones de emergencias. Esta postura pone el énfasis en el desastre y no en el que lo padece. Finalmente, la ocurrencia de un desastre no hace más que poner en evidencia la situación de riesgo preexistente.

Para conocer el riesgo o probabilidad de que ocurra un desastre es necesario tener en cuenta los dos componentes sociales que se relacionan cuando esto ocurre: La amenaza y la vulnerabilidad.

Amenaza de desastre: La amenaza es el peligro de que un desastre ocurra y la capacidad de poder prevenirlo. Las amenazas se clasifican en tres categorías:
Naturales: Estas forman parte del entorno. El ser humano no puede intervenir para que ocurran. Estas se clasifican en geológicas, geomórficas e hidrometeorológicas o climáticas.
Socionaturales: Se producen por algún tipo de intervención humana sobre la naturaleza.
Tecnológicas: Se relacionan directamente con los procesos de producción llevados a cabo por los seres humanos.

La vulnerabilidad:

Esto hace referencia a las condiciones en las que se encuentra la sociedad para enfrentar un desastre. Estas condiciones dependen de las características sociales, económicas, políticas y culturales del grupo social en riesgo. Esto puede medirse mediante tres factores:
La fragilidad física: Es el peligro que enfrenta un asentamiento poblacional de ser afectado por un desastre por estar ubicado en la zona de influencia de un fenómeno peligroso.
La fragilidad social: Esto se relaciona con el nivel de fragilidad de la sociedad. Esto se refiere a la sociedad que lo sufre, en el lugar que lo sufre y en el momento que lo sufre.
La resiliencia: Se refiere a las posibilidades de una población para reponerse socioeconómicamente después del desastre. Esto, también, se determina por la cantidad de recursos con los que cuenta una comunidad y la capacidad de prevención del acto.

Finalmente, las condiciones de vulnerabilidad de una sociedad determinan la magnitud de los daños que podría causar si una amenaza de desastre se concretara.

Los riesgos de desastre son desiguales, esto quiere decir, que algunos grupos son más vulnerables que otros. Existen dos extremos, los más vulnerables, conformados por la población de menores recursos, sin educación, sin acceso a servicios de salud, con poca información, asentados en áreas amenazadas y habitan en construcciones humildes y precarias. En el otro extremo, se encuentran los menos vulnerables quienes tienen más acceso a los servicios y recursos. Un ejemplo es el desastre de Río de Janeiro en abril de 2010 el cual demostró la diferencia de vulnerabilidad en la población.

Los fenómenos geológicos tienen su origen en el desplazamiento de las placas tectónicas.
Estos desplazamientos pueden provocar 2 de los eventos naturales más temidos por la sociedades. Estos son los sismos y el vulcanismo.

La amenaza de desastres geológicos es mayor en las zonas de montañas y mayor es el riesgo. Existen herramientas para disminuir la vulnerabilidad pero todavía el humano no ha podido predecir con antelación la ocurrencia de estos fenómenos.
Los fenómenos geomorfológicos son procesos naturales que afectan la mayor parte de la superficie terrestre. Estos consisten en movimientos de de suelo, rocas o de los dos. Como la fuerza responsable es la de gravedad ocurren en zonas de desniveles. El origen de estos puede ser otro evento natural o las mismas actividades humanas, como la deforestación. Un ejemplo de desastre geomorfológico que suele ser causado por las acciones de los humanos, es el hundimiento de tierra que ocurre a causa del derrumbe de alguna estructura subterránea.

Los desastres de origen climático afectan a más del 80% de la población, de los bienes y las superficies del mundo. Los más extremos de estos desastres son los tornados, los huracanes, las sequías y las inundaciones. Estos eventos se desarrollan en espacios y tiempos diferentes. Un ejemplo son las sequías, que suelen abarcar en superficies extensas y durar muchos meses.
Existen dos tipos de vientos muy fuertes: El primero son los tornados, que son masas de aire en forma de embudo que giran a gran velocidad.

La segunda son los huracanes, que se generan por tormentas y pueden ser muy destructivos. Un ejemplo de huracán es el de Katrina, en los Estados Unidos que ocurrió en Agosto de 2005 y costó mas de 1.800 vidas.

Luego, existen las sequías que, a diferencia de otros procesos, suelen ser más prolongadas y afectar a zonas más amplias. Se dividen en sequía meteorológica(se presenta cuando las precipitaciones son inferiores a los promedios esperados), sequía hidrológica(cuando los cursos de agua superficiales y subterráneos están por debajo de los promedios esperados) y sequía agrícola(que se presenta cuando la humedad del suelo no es suficiente apta para el cultivo). Un ejemplo son las sequías de Sahel, en áfrica que es una franja semiárida ubicada al sur del desierto del Sahara. Se extiende entre los países más pobres del mundo y dado que la mayoría de la población se dedica a la agricultura de subsistencia y la cría de animales, es muy vulnerable a las sequías.

Finalmente, están las inundaciones que de todos los eventos climáticos son las de mayor efecto dañino y se producen por el desborde de un río, por lluvias torrenciales o por la suba de mareas más allá del nivel habitual. Estas, además de la pérdida de vidas humanas, provocan daños irreparables en las viviendas gracias a la erosión que realizan sobre los cimientos. Además, el desastre por una inundación está vinculado estrechamente con las condiciones de vulnerabilidad de la sociedad que lo padece. Esto quiere decir, que si la sociedad cuenta con edificaciones adaptadas para estas, planes de contingencia, sistemas de alerta temprana, refugios, recursos económicos y financieros pueden disminuir las condiciones de vulnerabilidad.

El desarrollo de la tecnología aumentar el bienestar de las personas, sin embargo, también dio lugar a accidentes de graves consecuencias para la sociedad, los bienes y el ambiente. Los desastres tecnológicos se originan exclusivamente por las acciones humanas. A pesar de que sean provocados por algún fenómeno natural, son consecuencia de la falta de previsión del riesgo de que ocurriera ese fenómeno. Además, suceden porque los sistemas de seguridad y control no son infalibles. En conclusión, los avances tecnológicos implican riesgos a pesar de que mejoran las condiciones de vida de las personas.
Existen tres ejemplos de desastres tecnológicos, el primero son los desastres nucleares.
La producción de energía eléctrica en centrales nucleares debe realizarse con estrictas medidas de seguridad que deben cumplirse durante todo el proceso. La amenaza de desastre en una planta nuclear es la contaminación radiactiva que se produce cuando se libera material radiactivo en la atmósfera. Esto quiere decir que el riesgo de contaminación es menor cuanto a más distancia está del lugar del accidente. En las últimas décadas hubo dos desastres de este tipo muy importantes. El primero ocurrió en Chernóbil, Ucrania en Abril de 1986 y fue debido a un error humano. El segundo, ocurrió en Japón, en marzo de 2011 y fue causado por un intenso terremoto.
También existen los desastres quimicos.
Estos son producidos por la emisión no controlada de los elementos tóxicos en la atmósfera o en el agua. Son desastres que afectan a las sociedad que habitan en zonas cercanas a donde ocurrió el accidente. Pueden tener diferentes causas, como un incendio o una explosión en una instalación donde se producen o manipulan elementos tóxicos. Además, estos desastres tienen un impacto directo en la salud de las personas involucradas o de las personas que habitan zonas cercanas. Un ejemplo de desastres químicos es el que se produjo en Bhopal, India el 3 de diciembre de 1984. Se estima que fue uno de los mayores desastres químicos de la historia matando a cerca de 20.000 personas.

Finalmente, están los derrames de petróleo.

50.000 litros de derrame de petróleo amenazan la costa de Tailandia

Estos, en la mayoría de los casos, ocurren durante el transporte de estos de los lugares de extracción hacia los de procesamiento, ya sea barcos, camiones o por oleoductos. Los lugares de mayor amenaza son el mar y las costas, además, afectan a los ecosistemas y producen numerosas pérdidas económicas. Un ejemplo es la ruptura de un oleoducto en enero de 2000 que fue la causa del derrame de más de un millón de litros de petróleo en la Bahía de Guanabara frente a Río de Janeiro. La mancha, de 50 kilómetros cuadrados, contaminó las aguas de la Bahía y sus playas.

HURACÁN SAN CALIXO
El Huracán San Calixto también conocido como el Gran Huracán de 1780, se llevó el récord de mayor número de muertes registradas, quitándole la vida a más de 22.000 personas, tras el impacto en las islas del Caribe como Barbados y Martinica entre otras.
Los daños que causó el huracán fueron tan inmensos que hasta la fecha de hoy no ha sido posible cuantificarlos. Tal como dice la universidad holandesa de leiden que existen una serie de registros que transporta hasta nuestros días el llamado “Gran Huracán” que devastó el Caribe entre los días 10 y 16 de octubre de 1780.
No hay cifras exactas sobre la tormenta pero se estima el huracán llevaba rachas de viento superiores a los 320 kilómetros por hora. La fuerza del viento fue a tal nivel que muchos de los navíos de guerra, amarrados en los puertos de Santa Lucía, quedaron destrozados en la costa. De los doce barcos de la flota Británica, que hacían escala en esta isla de caribe rumbo a las Indias Occidentales, sólo tres lograron escapar del San Calixto.

Las investigaciones indican que el sistema inestable se desarrolló en el mar del Caribe, en las islas del Cabo Verde, desplazándose hacia Barbados. Más tarde llegó a Puerto Rico, La Española y acabó tocando Florida. Esta imagen demuestra las zonas afectadas por el catástrofe.

Además, en la isla de la martinica este desastroso huracán levantó una marejada ciclónica de 7,6 metros de altura.
Este gran huracán ha pasado a la historia no solo por la cantidad de muertes sino también por sus pérdidas materiales.

Durante los seis días que ocurrió el huracán hubo un descenso de más de 22.000 personas en martinica, Saint Eustatius y Barbados. Un enorme número de las víctimas murieron en el mar. También muchas flotas holandesas y españolas se vieron impresionadas por el fenómeno. Los exploradores que fueron a ver los desperfectos que había causado el huracán, se encontraron con un panorama terrible y desolador. el huracán había destruido por completo esta zona del Caribe.
En esta primera imagen podemos ver claramente lo desastroso que fue este desastre y cómo comenzó su destrucción en el las costas del mar caribe.
En la siguiente imagen podemos ver como están las costas del Mar Caribe en este momento. Esto demuestra que a pesar de que fue muy vulnerable al desastre, logró sobreponerse y enfrentarse a las consecuencias.
EL nombre San Calixto proviene del nombre del santo del día en que entró o pasó cerca de alguna zona habitada.
Esta es una imagen que demuestra los daños que causó el huracán y en ella podemos ver que la ciudad quedó destrozada, sin materiales y recursos. A la vez también podemos analizar que el huracán movilizó el mar creando inundaciones en estas ciudades.
Para concluir, los desastres son ocasionados generalmente por falta de prevención. Por esta razón, debemos ser cuidadosos y precavidos por estos acciones. Una conclusión que pudimos sacar, es que la mayoría de los catástrofes suceden por falta de precaución. Las sociedades no tienen la capacidad de prever lo que sucederá y, debido a esto, terminan siendo sorprendidos por el desastre y no pueden actuar frente al mismo.
A través de esto que pudimos ver, nosotros pensamos que todas las sociedades y poblaciones deben tener la capacidad de estar preparados a una posible destrucción imprevenida. A pesar de que estas catástrofes sean inevitables, hay que estar atentos para poder enfrentarlo.

Fuentes:

– http://hurricanesolution.com/el-huracan-san-calixto-de-1780-el-mas-mortifero-de-la-historia/
– www.wikipedia.org
– Libro Geografía – Ambientes, territorios y poblacion en el mundo actual – Estrada (1) ES.

Rite of Passage – Tyres

RITE OF PASSAGE- TYRES

Rite of Passage:

1- Unattainable object of desire: Raoul’s object of desire was the girl called Cécile Viala. He wanted her to be his girlfriend, he loved her, however, he didn’t have the braveness to talk to her.

2- The break of the father’s law: His moment of trespassing, is when he fixes the tyre incorrectly, breaking his father’s law.

3- Dare: The challenge that he faced is to break his father’s law when he repaired the tyre in an incorrect way. He mischief because he did what he shouldn’t have done because this caused his girlfriend death.

4- Face what he had done in a mature way: The personna didn’t face in a mature way what he had done because he didn’t move on with his life from her death.

5- Reparation: In this story, Raoul didn’t repair what he had done. He didn’t face what he had done, so he couldn’t have had the chance of repairing what he had done.

In conclusion, Raoul didn’t mature because he didn’t complete the rite of passage.

Essay Literature

ESSAY WRITING – LOVE III
Matías Ripoll and Tomás Braun

Essay question: “Explore how the voice of the poem Love III shows a change as the poem develops”.

As this story develops, the personna shows a change according to being worthy of receiving God’s love and being his guest.

To begin with, the character wasn’t able to accept his invitation because he felt “Guilty of dust and sin”. Despite this fact, Love is personified as God and acts fondly towards him as we can see in the following quotation: “Drew nearer to me, sweetly questioning, if I lacked anything”. In addition, this extract from the poem shows that love thinks that the speaker has all the qualities to be his guest. As the poem progresses, in spite of God’s acceptance, the raconteur still refuses to enter heaven. Moreover, through the rhetorical question “Who made the eyes but I?” the divine being explains to the storyteller that he can look love with the eyes he gave him.

At the beginning of the third stanza, the speaker accepts what God says, in spite of the fact, he still feels unworthy because he ruined what the celestial being gave him. We can see this through the extract “Truth lord, but I have marred them: let my shame”. Furthermore, when the creator transmits “Who bore the blame?” he wants to explain that Christ died on the cross to make us free from sin. Moreover, in the third line of the fifth stanza, we can see love says to the voice “you must sit down, and taste my meat”. This metaphor means that, now that the speaker is in God’s house, he must obey Him. Also, it is a reference to the last supper. Finally, the personna obeyed his word when he says “I will serve”. Through this quotation, we can see that the personna understands and accepts what God was trying to transmit.
All in all, as the poem develops, the voice of the poem changes his feelings about accepting God’s invitation.

League of Nations

n the History class, Lenny left us a task which was to watch a video from her blog and to read the second chapter form our History book, and then to answer some questions.

Here is the video:

 

Matías Ripoll and Trinidad Porretti.

QUESTIONS

1- What were the aims of the league?

2- What happened to Wilson when he returned to USA after signing the Treaty of Versailles?

3- Why did German immigrants in USA not want to join the league?

4- What economic reason did USA give to stay out of the league?

5- How did Americans feel about imperialism in Europe?

6- Why did Poland invade Vilna? Why did the league not act about it?

7- Why was upper Silesia an important region for Poland and Germany?

8- How did the league solve the problem in Vilna?

9- What did the league decide to do about the Aaland Islands?

10- Why did Mussolini invade Greece in the Corfu conflict?

11- Why was the league criticised about the resolution in the Corfu conflict?

12- How did the Geneva protocol weaken the league?

13- Why did Greece invade Belgium in 1925?

14- Why did Greece complain that the league “seemed to have one rule for the large states(such as Italy) and other for the small ones?

 

ANSWERS

 

1- The principal aims of the League were; to discourage aggression between countries, to encourage countries to disarm, to encourage countries to co-operate, especially in business and trade, and to improve the living and working conditions of people all around the world.This aims would lead to a fair and lasting peace, which the League clearly didn’t achieve, due to WW2.

 

2- Woodrow Wilson, after signing the Treaty, came back to USA and had problems. Before the USA could even join the league, he needed the approval of the Congress. However, in the USA the idea of joining the league wasn’t supported by everyone, because they didn’t want to get involved in international alliance, but follow it’s own policies and self-interest. In addition, his idea was defeated twice in 1919 and March 1920 by the congress. The Republican candidate for the elections, Warren Harding, campaigned for the opposite than Wilson, isolation, because he thought that the US had enough people and resources to be by themselves. He thought that the European instability, due to the post-war recovery, could affect USA’s stability. Harding won the elections, so when the League opened for Business, the US wasn’t present.

 

3- The German immigrants in USA didn’t want to join the league because this one, enforced the Treaty of Versailles which was hated by the Germans for the reason that it had weakened and humiliated them previously.

 

4- The economic reason that USA gave to stay out of the league was that if the league imposed sanctions it might be American Trade and Business that suffered the most. In addition, if she joined the League, she would have to give economic support for troops, as the other members of the League were in an economic depression, due to the post-war recovery.

 

5- The Americans, according to imperialism in Europe, feared the the League would be dominated by Britain or France because they were the most powerful empires, and would defend themselves, and make all of the decisions. And, the problem was, that many in the US were Anti-Empires.

 

6- Poland invaded Vilna in 1920 because she was in a dispute with Lithuania due to that she claimed that there were a lot of Poles living in Vilna(because before the Treaty of Versailles, the Lithanian capital belonged to Poland) and therefore it belonged to her. Because of this reason, Lithuania appealed to the league. However, the League (France and Britain), was not prepared to act because the League was new and they had economic issues due to the consequences of WW1. And because they weren’t prepared to act, they failed and therefore let the Poles get their way.

 

7- Upper Silesia was an important region for Germany and Poland because it was the border area between them, and the region was ethnically mixed with both Germans and Poles. In addition, this region was very rich in resources. This problem was solved by the League which oversaw a peaceful plebiscite(the rural area voted for Poland and the urban one for Germany)and divided the region among Germany and Poland. Finally both countries accepted this decision. This dispute was carried out in a positive way because it was solved in a peaceful and fair manner.

 

8- The League(France and Britain) didn’t solve this problem because they couldn’t persuade Poland to leave the city. The armed forces weren’t able to pull them out of the city. This meant that Poland was powerful. They didn’t leave the city until the outbreak of World War 2 in 1939.

 

9- After the dispute in 1921 between Finland and Sweden over the Aaland islands, the League intervened and decided that the islands should belong to Finland avoiding a war between them. Sweden accepted this decision. The organization decided to measure the distance between the islands and countries, as Finland was closer, she got to keep them. This was a fair resolution.

 

10- Mussolini, the Italian leader during that time, invaded Greece because he was furious and blamed the Greek government for the murder of the Italian general Tellini and his team(who were representing the League to sort out the border between Greece and Albania, and were killed by Greeks). In addition, they invaded Corfu because Mussolini demanded the Greeks to pay a compensation and execute the murderers. However, the Greeks had no idea who the murderers were. So on August the 31st he bombarded Greece and then occupied the Greek island of Corfu, and killed fifteen people.

 

11- The League was criticised about the resolution of the Corfu conflict because this showed that the weakest of all powers, Italy, could get its way if they were backed up by Britain and France, who agreed to sacrifice justice for cooperation. For this reason, Greece had to pay a compensation to Italy.

 

12- The Geneva protocol weakened the League because conflicts such as the Corfu dispute could continue happening. The Geneva protocol was supposed to strengthen the League, because it said that if two members were in dispute they would have to ask the League to sort out the disagreement and they would have to accept the Council’s decision. However, as Britain was having general elections, a new Conservative government was chosen and it refused to sign the protocol before it could be put into effect, because they feared if there was another conflict the League would solve it, acting to her own interests, not Britain’s. Therefore, this protocol which was supposed to strengthen the League, ended up doing the opposite. The Geneva protocol showed how Great Britain had control over the League in a negative way, because many countries started to follow GB’s lead by not signing the protocol.  

 

13- Greece invaded Belgium in October 1925 because of the incident on the border in which some Greek soldiers were killed. Greece thought that If Italy had done this, why couldn’t they do the same?So Bulgaria appealed to the League for help and finally, the League demanded both sides to stand their forces down and Greek forces withdraw from Bulgaria. Although they complained that there seemed to be one rule for the smaller, “less important” states, and another for the bigger, “more important” states. The resolution of this conflict was partly successful partly failure, because on the hand, she solved the fact that there could be a war between them. Although, on the other hand, she wasn’t partial or fair with Greece, who had done the same thing Italy did in the Corfu conflict. This showed that the league had a ruling for the big countries and another for the small ones.

 

14- Greece complained that the League “seemed to have one rule for the large states(such as Italy) and other for the small ones(such as Greece)” because it wasn’t fair, all States should have an only same rule. Because of this, the major states were likely to get things done in their way, they could decide over most of the issues, this meant they had benefits because they were more powerful. This made it clear that larger states were more important than the smaller ones, that they had more priorities, and that was unfair, the League, which was supposed to be fair, was the opposite.

 

Mitosis – Summary

Yesterday, in our Biology class, Ceci told us to watch again the video we had watched in class and make a summary of it.

This is the video:

This is my summary about it:

Mitosis: Mitosis is a type of cell division, done by most of our body cells and is very important for these cells to divide. If they didn’t divide, you wouldn’t grow.

It’s function is the growth and reparation. The reason of the increasing of your growth throughout years, is Mitosis. Moreover, if you have a kind of accident, like a cut on your arm, to make sure it can get repaired you have to make more cells to do it and Mitosis is great and essential also for this. In addition, Mitosis is not a process that makes sperm or eggs cells, because this is made by Meiosis which is a different process. Through this process two indetical(with same genetic material) daughter cells are made. An example is when you need more skin cells for replacing other skin cells that are in damage you don’t need any stomach cells and that is Mitosis’ function, to make identical cells. Despite this fact, cells are not always growing because this would cause Cancer, that is the result of uncontrolled cell growth. In the interface, cells grow, make the “DNA replication” and carry out its daily cells function. In the cell cycle, we can see what cells do in all their lives. The interphase, takes 90% of the time of this cycle and is where the cells make all their processes except for Mitosis, that take 10% of the time of this cycle. The cells have something inside them, an organelle called Nucleus that holds the DNA which is the genetic material. So, if you are going to make mor cells you need them to have the same DNA in those new cells as you did in your original ones. The DNA can be organized into condensed units called chromosomes that are made of DNA and protein. In addition, Humans have 46 chromosomes in it of their cells. So, if you have 46 chromosomes in a cell, you have to duplicate those chromosomes(interphase) before mitosis starts so that they would be identical as the original ones. Also, because we tend to count chromosomes by the number of centromeres present, when the 46 chromosomes duplicate, we still say that there are 46 chromosomes because we’re counting by the centromeres. However, when they duplicate, there are 92 chromatids.

Finally, there are four stages in this process:

-Prophase:In this stage, the nucleus is still there despite the fact, it’s going to go away and the chromosomes are visible.

-Metaphase:In this stage, the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell while the nucleus has been disassembled, that it’s no longer there.

-Anaphase: Here, the chromosomes move to the opposite side of the cell, to the poles of it. However, these chromosomes are not moving on their own, they have something called spindles that are fibers that help move the chromosomes to the end.

-Telophase: In this final stage, the chromosomes are at the complete opposite ends and new nuclei are forming on each side to make these two new cells.

Finally, to finish this division, there is the cytokinesis that is responsible for the final separation into two cells by splitting the cytoplasm.

Notes for Biology – June 11th

Reproduction in plants

-Reproduction is the process by which organisms produce new organisms.
-Living organisms reproduce in two ways depending on the number of parents involved.
-Asexual~~~~~~~~ 1 parent
-Sexual~~~~~~~~ 2 parents
-Some living organisms either sexually or asexually and some only in 1 way.
-Asexual: Process by which one organism produces a new living organism without the participation of another. The new organism is yes or yes identical. Both the parent’s cells and offspring’s cells contain the same genetic material. Whenever an organism is an identical from it’s parent having the same genetic material are called clones. When environment is constant asexual reproduction is fast and effective because they don’t have to find a compatible organism and because if they are suitable for it, the offspring will also be. The only form that bacteria and other prokaryotic organisms is by reproduction. This type of reproduction is common for single-celled eukaryotic organisms such as protozoa, single-celled algae and yeast. Many fungi and multicellular algae adopt this form of reproduction in certain circumstances.There exist many forms of asexual reproduction: Bipartition (Divides spontaneously into two like bacteria), Budding (Organism spontaneously creates a bud which ends up separating and becoming another identical individual like Hydra),
-Sexual: Process by which two compatible organism from same species create new living organisms. The descendants will have a mix of the characteristics of their parents.

Notes for biology – June 6th

Has reproduction been always understood as we do nowadays?

This are my notes about what we have seen in this class:

– Before, there weren’t any microscopes or tools and that is why most of the living organism could not be seen.
– In anciente Greece, they thought that there were two ways of generating living organisms:
.By reprofuction of another living organism.
.By the transformation of lifeless forms.
– There weren’t any tools to see a lot of things so they couldn’t prove nor refute what they thought.
– Thanks to detalied observation of magnifying lenses we know a lot of more things like for example that weevils are born from tiny eggs.
– From ancient times, a lot of humans believed that living organism were created from inert material until the nineteenth century that was refuted.
– In conclusion, in the past, they didn’t have any tools to see a lot of things and living organisms. However, we know that what they thought was wrong because of the detalied observation that we have nowadays

Song by Lady Mary Wroth

Today, in our literature class, Pato left us an activitie in which we had to read the analyze of a video and the analyze from senior 1 feom last year and make a summary and answer some questions.

The video:

The slideshare from S2:

My summary:

image

 

 

 

 

 

The questions:

Watch this video and the presentation, take notes and then answer the following questions:

1-Who is the voice?

2-Write a summary for each stanza.

3-What is the theme? And the tone?

4-Find at least 3 literary devices and explain them.

5-In your opinion, which is the most powerful line?

6-Do you agree with the speaker? Give reasons.

My answers:

1- The voice of the poem “song” writtenp by Lady Mary Wroth is a woman.

2-Summary of stanzas:

1st: In the first stanza, we can see that the writer, compares love to a child and how they behave(never happy) according to what they want. The voice says that the woman tries to give him what he wants but doesn’t achieve it because of the child’s ungratefulness.

2nd: In this stanza we can see that the man has an enormous desire. In addition, he is not trustworthy because he breaks all his promises.

3rd: In the third stanza the woman tries to emphasize again that you can not trust on him and that he’ll flatter if you are forsaken. This is shown through the quotations: “Let him gain the hand, he’ll leave you” and also “And still glory to deceive you”.

4th: In this one, the personna expresses that the man is selfish and that he is not able to please the woman why she is always trying to but can not because of his selfishness.

5th: In the last stanza, she compares men to animals because their ferocity. She also says that men don’t change their evilness and selfishness oftenly.

3-
Themes:
-Men actions
-Selfishness
-Relationship between women and men.

Tones:
-Advising
-Being selfish
-Warning

4-
Personification: “Love a child”.
The voice, through this quotation, wants to show that a child is similar to love and compares them expressing that they are never happy and always complaining.

Hyperbole:
“Wolves no fiercer in their preying”. Through this metaphor she wants to show that the wolves, even in the less fiercer moments, don’t have more ferocity than men.

Simile:
“Nor seek him so given to flying”.
The personna through this quotation compares love to a child one she says that you should leave love alone in the same way you should leave an argumentative child alone.

5- In my opinion, the most powerful line of this poem is this one: “Let him gain the hand, he’ll leave you”
The woman through this extract, wants to express that men are never trustworthy and that he has already gained your confidence he’ll let you down abandoning and leaving you.

6- In my opinion, what this woman says is not totally wrong because in some cases happens this, that a man abandons her girlfriend or wife. However, this is not true because she describes the situation in a general way as if all men were like this, selfish, arrogant, evil and men are different with different personalities as the same way women are. In conclusion, I don’t agree with her although maybe she says this because she experienced and lived something that made her think that.